Wednesday, July 13, 2016

Architects & Engineers for Flat Earth Truth



Surveyors, engineers and architects are never required to factor the supposed curvature of the Earth into their projects, providing another proof the world is a plane, not a planet.  Canals and railways, for example, are always cut and laid horizontally, often over hundreds of miles, without any allowance for curvature.

One surveyor, Mr. T. Westwood, wrote into the January, 1896 “Earth Review” magazine stating that, “In leveling, I work from Ordinance marks, or canal levels, to get the height above sea level.  The puzzle to me used to be, that over several miles each level was and is treated throughout its whole length as the same level from end to end; not the least allowance being made for curvature.  One of the civil engineers in this district, after some amount of argument on each side as to the reason why no allowance for curvature was made, said he did not believe anybody would know the shape of the earth in this life.” 

Another Surveyor and Engineer of thirty years wrote to the Birmingham Weekly Mercury, Feb. 15th, 1890 stating, “I am thoroughly acquainted with the theory and practice of civil engineering.  However bigoted some of our professors may be in the theory of surveying according to the prescribed rules, yet it is well known amongst us that such theoretical measurements are INCAPABLE OF ANY PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATION.  All our locomotives are designed to run on what may be regarded as TRUE LEVELS or FLATS.  There are, of course, partial inclines or gradients here and there, but they are always accurately defined and must be carefully traversed.  But anything approaching to eight inches in the mile, increasing as the square of the distance, COULD NOT BE WORKED BY ANY ENGINE THAT WAS EVER YET CONSTRUCTED.  Taking one station with another all over England and Scotland, it may be stated that all the platforms are ON THE SAME RELATIVE LEVEL.  The distance between Eastern and Western coasts of England may be set down as 300 miles.  If the prescribed curvature was indeed as represented, the central stations at Rugby or Warwick ought to be close upon three miles higher than a chord drawn from the two extremities.  If such was the case there is not a driver or stoker within the Kingdom that would be found to take charge of the train.  We can only laugh at those of your readers who seriously give us credit for such venturesome exploits, as running trains round spherical curves.  Horizontal curves on levels are dangerous enough, vertical curves would be a thousand times worse, and with our rolling stock constructed as at present physically impossible.

Engineer, W. Winckler, wrote into the Earth Review October 1893 regarding the Earth’s supposed curvature, stating, “As an engineer of many years standing, I saw that this absurd allowance is only permitted in school books.  No engineer would dream of allowing anything of the kind.  I have projected many miles of railways and many more of canals and the allowance has not even been thought of, much less allowed for.  This allowance for curvature means this - that it is 8” for the first mile of a canal, and increasing at the ratio by the square of the distance in miles; thus a small navigable canal for boats, say 30 miles long, will have, by the above rule an allowance for curvature of 600 feet.  Think of that and then please credit engineers as not being quite such fools.  Nothing of the sort is allowed.  We no more think of allowing 600 feet for a line of 30 miles of railway or canal, than of wasting our time trying to square the circle

The Suez Canal which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez on the Red Sea is a clear proof of the Earth’s and water’s non-convexity.  The canal is 100 miles long and without any locks so the water within is an uninterrupted continuation of the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.  When it was constructed, the Earth’s supposed curvature was not taken into account, it was dug along a horizontal datum line 26 feet below sea-level, passing through several lakes from one sea to the other, with the datum line and the water’s surface running perfectly parallel over the 100 miles.  The average level of the Mediterranean is 6 inches above the Red Sea, while the floodtides in the Red Sea rise 4 feet above the highest and drop 3 feet below the lowest in the Mediterranean, making the half-tide level of the Red Sea, the surface of the Mediterranean Sea, and the 100 miles of water in the canal, all a clear continuation of the same horizontal line!  Were they instead the supposed curved line of globe-Earthers, the water in the center of the canal would be 1666 feet (502 x 8 inches = 1666 feet 8 inches) above the respective Seas on either side!

The distance between the Red Sea at Suez and the Mediterranean Sea is 100 statute miles, the datum line of the Canal being 26 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and is continued horizontally the whole way from sea to sea, there not being a single lock on the Canal, the surface of the water being parallel with the datum line. It is thus clear that there is no curvature or globularity for the whole hundred miles between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea; had there been, according to the Astronomic theory, the middle of the Canal would have been 1,666 feet higher than at either end, whereas the Canal is perfectly horizontal for the whole distance. The Great Canal of China, said to be 700 miles in length, was made without regard to any allowance for supposed curvature, as the Chinese believe the Earth to be a Stationary Plane. I may also add that no allowance was made for it in the North Sea Canal, or in the Manchester Ship Canal, both recently constructed, thus clearly proving that there is no globularity in Earth or Sea, so that the world cannot possibly be a Planet.  -David Wardlaw Scott, “Terra Firma” (134)

If the earth be the globe of popular belief, it is very evident that in cutting a canal, an allowance must be made for the curvature of the globe, which allowance would correspond to the square of the distance multiplied by eight inches.  From The Age, of 5th August 1892, I extract the following:  ‘The German Emperor performed the ceremony of opening the Gates of the Baltic and North Sea Canal, in the spring of 1891.  The canal starts at Holtenau, on the south side of Kiel Bay, and joins the Elbe 15 miles above its mouth.  It is 61 miles long, 200 feet wide at the surface and 85 feet at the bottom, the depth being 28 feet.  No locks are required, as the surface of the two seas is level.’  Let those who believe it is the practice for surveyors to make allowance for ‘curvature’ ponder over the following from the Manchester Ship Canal Company (Earth Review, October, 1893)  ‘It is customary in Railway and Canal constructions for all levels to be referred to a datum which is nominally horizontal and is so shown on all sections.  It is not the practice in laying out Public Works to make allowances for the curvature of the earth.”  -Thomas Winship, “Zetetic Cosmogeny” (23)

The London and Northwestern Railway forms a straight line 180 miles long between London and Liverpool.  The railroad’s highest point, midway at Birmingham station, is only 240 feet above sea-level.  If the world were actually a globe, however, curveting 8 inches per mile squared, the 180 mile stretch of rail would form an arc with the center point at Birmingham raising a full 5,400 feet above London and Liverpool.  Adding the station’s actual height (240 feet) to its theoretical inclination (5,400 feet) gives 5,640 feet as the rail’s necessary height on a globe-Earth, more than a thousand feet taller than Ben Nevis, the tallest mountain in Great Britain!

In projecting railways on a globe, the datum line would be the arc of a circle corresponding to the latitude of the place.  That the datum line for the railway projections is always a horizontal line, proves that the general configuration of the world is horizontal.  To support the globe theory, the gentlemen of the observatories should call upon the surveyor to prove that he allows the necessary amount for ‘curvature.’  But this is what the learned men dare not do, as it is well-known that the allowance for the supposed curvature is never made.  -Thomas Winship, “Zetetic Cosmogeny” (107)

In a long line, like that of the Great Pacific Railway, extending across North America, the supposed curvature would, of course, be proportionately great, extending to many miles in height, but not one inch was allowed by the engineers for curvature during the whole course of the construction of that vast line of Railway. And, if we think of it, how could it be otherwise? All Railway metals must, of necessity, be straight, for how could any engine or carriage run with safety on a convex surface?  -David Wardlaw Scott, “Terra Firma” (125)

J.C. Bourne in his book, “The History of the Great Western Railway” stated that the entire original English railroad, more than 118 miles long, that the whole line with the exception of the inclined planes, may be regarded practically as level.  The British Parliament Session in 1862 that approved its construction  recorded in Order No. 44 for the proposed railway, “That the section be drawn to the same HORIZONTAL scale as the plan, and to a vertical scale of not less than one inch to every one hundred feet, and shall show the surface of the ground marked on the plan, the intended level of the proposed work, the height of every embankment, and the depth of every cutting, and a DATUM HORIZONTAL LINE which shall be the same throughout the whole length of the work.

One hundred and eighteen miles of LEVEL railway, and yet the surface on which it is projected a globe?  Impossible.  It cannot be.  Early in 1898 I met Mr. Hughes, chief officer of the steamer ‘City of Lincoln.’  This gentleman told me he had projected thousands of miles of level railway in South America, and never heard of any allowance for curvature being made.  On one occasion he surveyed over one thousand miles of railway which was a perfect straight line all the way.  It is well known that in the Argentine Republic and other parts of South America, there are railways thousands of miles long without curve or gradient.  In projecting railways, the world is acknowledged to be a plane, and if it were a globe the rules of projection have yet to be discovered.  Level railways prove a level world, to the utter confusion of the globular school of impractical men with high salaries and little brains.”  -Thomas Winship, “Zetetic Cosmogeny” (109)

That in all surveys no allowance is made for curvature, which would be a necessity on a globe; that a horizontal line is in every case the datum line, the same line being continuous throughout the whole length of the work; and that the theodolite cuts a line at equal altitudes on either side of it, which altitude is the same as that of the instrument, clearly proves, to those who will accept proof when it is furnished, that the world is a plane and not a globe.”  -Thomas Winship, “Zetetic Cosmogeny” (126)



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Saturday, June 25, 2016

Arctic Midnight Sun Proves Flat Earth





During Arctic summer, from the 22nd to the 25th of June, at a high enough latitude and altitude, you can watch a phenomenon known as “the Midnight Sun” where the Sun stays continuously visible in the sky for 3 days straight!  The “Midnight Sun” rises on the 22nd and for the next 72 hours never disappears from sight, slowly ascending and descending every 12 hours, showing 3 brilliant “sunsets” and “sunrises” without ever actually setting below the horizon.  In “The Brighton Examiner” of July, 1870, United States Ambassador to Norway, Mr. Campbell, described his experience witnessing the Midnight Sun with a group of gentlemen, on a cliff 1000 feet above the Arctic Sea at the 69th North parallel:

"It was late but still sunlight. The Arctic Ocean stretched away in silent vastness at our feet, the sound of the waves scarcely reached our airy look-out. Away in the north the huge old Sun swung low along the horizon, like the slow beat of the tall clock in our grandfather's parlour corner. We all stood silently looking at our watches. When both hands stood together at twelve midnight, the full round orb hung triumphantly above the waves—a bridge of gold running due north spangled the water between us and him. There he shone in silent majesty which knew no setting. We involuntarily took off our hats—no word was said. Combine the most brilliant sunrise you ever saw, and its beauties will pall before the gorgeous colouring which lit up the ocean, heaven, and mountains. In half an hour the Sun had swung up perceptibly on its beat, the colours had changed to those of morning. A fresh breeze had rippled over the florid sea; one songster after another piped out of the grove behind us—we had slid into another day."

Tourists from Haparanda prefer going to Avasaxa, a hill 680 feet above the sea, from which though eight or ten miles south of the arctic circle, they can see the midnight sun for three days.  As the voyage drew to a close, and we approached the upper end of the Gulf of Bothnia the twilight had disappeared, and between the setting and rising of the sun hardly one hour elapsed.  Haparanda is in 65 degrees 31 minutes North latitude and forty one miles south of the arctic circle.  It is 1 degree 18 minutes farther north than Archangel, and in the same latitude as the most northern part of Iceland.  The sun rises on the 21st of June at 12:01am and sets at 11:37pm.  From the 22nd to the 25th of June the traveler may enjoy the sight of the midnight sun from Avasaxa, a hill six hundred and eighty feet high, and about forty-five miles distant.”  -M. Paul B. du Chaillu, “The Land of the Midnight Sun”

If the Earth were actually a spinning globe revolving around the Sun, the only place such a phenomenon as the Midnight Sun could be observed would be at the poles.  Any other vantage point from 89 degrees latitude downwards could never, regardless of any tilt or inclination, see the Sun for 24 hours straight.  To see the Sun for an entire revolution on a spinning globe at a point other than the poles, you would have to be looking through miles and miles of land and sea for part of the revolution!  Anyone below the 89th parallel could never witness the Sun for 72 hours, 3 whole revolutions, straight because to do so would be to assume you are somehow seeing “through the globe” and to the Sun on the other side!  Since such an assumption is ridiculous, and yet the Midnight Sun can clearly be seen as low as the 65 parallel, this is another absolute proof that Earth is the flat, stationary center of the universe.

If the earth be a globe, at midnight the eye would have to penetrate thousands of miles of land and water even at 65 degrees North latitude, in order to see the sun at midnight.  That the sun can be seen for days together in the Far North during the Northern summer, proves that there is something very seriously wrong with the globular hypothesis.  Besides this how is it that the midnight sun is never seen in the south during the southern summer?  Cook penetrated as far South as 71 degrees, Weddell in 1893 reached as far as 74 degrees, and Sir James C. Ross in 1841 and 1842 reached the 78th parallel, but I am not aware that any of these navigators have left it on record that the sun was seen at midnight in the south.  -Thomas Winship, “Zetetic Cosmogeny” (63)

Heliocentrists also cannot explain why the Midnight Sun phenomenon is not experienced anywhere in the Southern hemisphere at any time of year.  Quite to the contrary, it has been recorded by the Royal Belgian Geographical Society in “Expedition Antarctique Belge,” that during the most severe part of the Antarctic winter, from 71 degrees South latitude onwards, the sun sets on May 17th and is not seen above the horizon again until July 21st!  This is completely at odds with the ball-Earth theory, but easily explained by the flat-Earth model.  The Midnight Sun is seen from high altitudes in extreme Northern latitudes during Arctic summer because the Sun, at its inner-most cycle, is circling tightly enough around the polar center that it remains visible above the horizon for someone at such a vantage point.  Likewise, in extreme Southern latitudes during Arctic summer, the Sun completely disappears from view for over 2 months because there at the Northern Tropic, at the inner-most arc of its boomerang journey, the Sun is circling the Northern center too tightly to be seen from the Southern circumference. 

It is evident that in the great encircling oceans of the south, and the numerous islands and parts of continents, which exist beyond that part of the earth where the sun is vertical, cannot have their days and nights, seasons, etc., precisely like those in the northern region. The north is a centre, and the south is that centre radiated or thrown out to a vast oceanic circumference, terminating in circular walls of ice, which form an impenetrable frozen barrier. Hence the phenomena referred to as existing in the north must be considerably modified in the south, For instance, the north being central, the light of the sun advancing and receding, gives long periods of alternate light and darkness at the actual centre; but in the far south, the sun, even when moving in his outer path, can only throw its light to a certain distance, beyond which there must be perpetual darkness. No evidence exists of there being long periods of light and darkness regularly alternating, as in the north. In the north, in summer-time, when the sun is moving in its inner path, the light shines continually for months together over the central region, and rapidly develops numerous forms of animal and vegetable life.”  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (115)

In typical reverse-engineered damage-control fashion, trying to explain away the Midnight Sun, problematic Arctic/Antarctic phenomena, and the fact that Polaris can be seen approximately 23.5 degrees South of the equator, desperate heliocentrists in the late 19th century again modified their theory to say the ball-Earth actually tilts back 23.5 degrees on its vertical axis, thus explaining away many problems in one swoop!  If it simply tilted the same direction constantly, however, this would still not explain the phenomena because after 6 months of supposed orbital motion around the Sun, any amount of tilt would be perfectly opposite, thus negating their alleged explanation for Arctic/Antarctic irregularities.  To account for this, heliocentrists added that the Earth also “wobbles,” in a complex combination of patterns known as, “planetary nutation,” the “Chandler wobble,” and “axial precession” which, in their vivid imaginations, somehow explains away common sense.

Common sense, however, says that if the heat of the Sun travels 93,000,000 miles to reach us, a small axial tilt and wobble, the difference of a few thousand miles, should be completely negligible.  If the ball-Earth actually spun around 93,000,000 miles from the Sun, regardless of any tilt or wobble, temperature and climate the whole world over should be almost completely uniform.  If the heat of the Sun truly travelled ninety-three million miles to reach Earth’s equator, the extra few thousand miles to the poles, regardless of any supposed “tilt” or “wobble,” no matter how extreme, would surely be negligible in negating such intense heat!

The supposition that the seasons are caused by the Earth’s annual motion round the Sun at a mean distance of 92,500,000 of miles, is grotesque. According to Piazzi the size of the Sun is in proportion to the Earth, as 329,360 to 1, the diameter exceeds that of the Earth 112 times. The Earth appears, as Biot says, by this statement, ‘a mere grain of sand, as compared to the Sun.’ This enormous expanse of light focused on a rotating ‘grain of sand,’ at the distance of 93 millions of miles, would cause the same season throughout it. The paltry few miles, in comparison that separates London from Cape Town could never cause diverse seasons, neither would the distance from London to the Riviera justify the difference in the climate that characterizes the two places.”  -E. Eschini, “Foundations of Many Generations” (7)

Common sense also says if the Earth were actually a ball spinning daily with uniform speed around the Sun, there should be exactly 12 hour days and 12 hour nights everywhere all year round regardless of any alleged tilt or inclination, half the sphere would always be lit, the other half not!  The great variety in length of days and nights throughout the year all over Earth testifies to the fact that we do not live on a spinning ball-planet.  There cannot exist phenomena such as this on a globe, nor the Midnight Sun, nor anything like Antarctic winter where the Sun is nowhere to be found for over 2 months per year!

The theory of the rotation of the earth may once and for all be definitely disposed of as impracticable by pointing out the following inadvertence. It is said that the rotation takes twenty-four hours and that its speed is uniform, in which case, necessarily, days and nights should have an identical duration of twelve hours each all the year round. The sun should invariably rise in the morning and set in the evening at the same hours, with the result that it would be the equinox every day from the 1st of January to the 31st of December. One should stop and reflect on this before saying that the earth has a movement of rotation. How does the system of gravitation account for the seasonal variations in the lengths of days and nights if the earth rotates at a uniform speed in twenty-four hours!?  -Gabrielle Henriet, “Heaven and Earth” (10)



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Thursday, June 16, 2016

Polaris Proves the Flat Earth





NASA and modern astronomy say the Earth is a giant globe spinning 1,000 mph around its central axis, traveling 67,000 mph circles around the Sun, spiraling 500,000 mph around the Milky Way, while the entire galaxy rockets a ridiculous 670,000,000 mph through the Universe, with all of these motions originating from an alleged “Big Bang” cosmogenic explosion 14 billion years ago.  That’s a grand total of 670,568,000 mph in several different directions we’re all supposedly speeding along at simultaneously.  No one has ever seen, felt, heard, measured or proven such motion, yet the vast majority of people unquestioningly accept that the clearly motionless Earth beneath their feet is actually moving over six hundred million miles per hour!

NASA and modern astronomy say Polaris, the North Pole star, is somewhere between 323-434 light years, or about 2 quadrillion miles, away from us!  Firstly, note that is between 1,938,000,000,000,000 - 2,604,000,000,000,000 miles making a difference of 666,000,000,000,000 (over six hundred trillion) miles!  If modern astronomy cannot even agree on the distance to stars within hundreds of trillions of miles, perhaps their “science” is flawed and their theory needs re-examining.  However, even granting them their obscurely distant stars, heliocentric astronomers cannot adequately explain how Polaris manages to always remain almost perfectly aligned straight above the North Pole.

If the globe-Earth was really spinning West-East 1,000 mph, orbiting the Sun counter-clockwise at 67,000 mph, spiraling around the outer-arms of the Milky Way at 500,000 mph, while shooting through the Universe at 670,000,000 mph, how is it even conceptually possible that Polaris, 2 quadrillion miles away, day after day, year after year, always maintains its alignment straight above the North Pole!?  That would mean from 2 quadrillion miles away, Polaris would have to be perfectly mirroring Earth’s several simultaneous wobbling, spinning, spiraling, and shooting motions.  Polaris would have to be shooting the same direction through the Universe at exactly 670,000,000 mph; it would have to be following the same 500,000 mph, 225 million year spiral around the Milky Way, and mirroring the same 67,000 mph, 365 day orbit around our Sun!  Or, the Earth is stationary - as common sense and everyday experience testifies.  

It is supposed in the regular course of the Newtonian theory that the Earth is, in June, about 190 millions of miles (190,000,000) away from its position in December. Now, since we can, (in middle north latitudes) see the North Star, on looking out of a window that faces it - and out of the very same corner of the very same pane of glass in the very same window - all the year round, it is proof enough for any man in his senses that we have made no motion at all.  -William Carpenter, “100 Proofs the Earth is Not a Globe” (80)

Not only this, but viewed from a ball-Earth, Polaris, situated almost straight over the North Pole, should not be visible anywhere in the Southern Hemisphere.  For Polaris to be seen from the Southern Hemisphere of a globular Earth, the observer would have to be somehow looking “through the globe,” and miles of land and sea would have to be transparent.  Polaris can be seen, however, up to approximately 23.5 degrees South latitude.

If the Earth is a sphere and the pole star hangs over the northern axis, it would be impossible to see it for a single degree beyond the equator, or 90 degrees from the pole.  The line-of-sight would become a tangent to the sphere, and consequently several thousand miles out of and divergent from the direction of the pole star.  Many cases, however, are on record of the north polar star being visible far beyond the equator, as far even as the tropic of Capricorn.”  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Earth Not a Globe, 2nd Edition” (41)

The astronomers' theory of a globular Earth necessitates the conclusion that, if we travel south of the equator, to see the North Star is an impossibility. Yet it is well known this star has been seen by navigators when they have been more than 20 degrees south of the equator. This fact, like hundreds of other facts, puts the theory to shame, and gives us a proof that the Earth is not a globe.”  -William Carpenter, “100 Proofs the Earth is Not a Globe” (71)

To account for this glaring problem in their model, desperate heliocentrists since the late 19th century have claimed the ball-Earth actually tilts a convenient 23.5 degrees back on its vertical axis.  Even this brilliant revision to their theory cannot account for the visibility of many other constellations though.  For instance, Ursa Major, very close to Polaris, can be seen from 90 degrees North latitude (the North Pole) all the way down to 30 degrees South latitude.  The constellation Vulpecula can be seen from 90 degrees North latitude, all the way to 55 degrees South latitude.  Taurus, Pisces and Leo can be seen from 90 degrees North all the way to 65 degrees South.  Aquarius and Libra can be seen from 65 degrees North to 90 degrees South!  The constellation Virgo is visible from 80 degrees North down to 80 degrees South, and Orion can be seen from 85 degrees North all the way to 75 degrees South latitude!  An observer on a ball-Earth, regardless of any tilt or inclination, should not logically be able to see this far.

Another thing is certain, that from within the equator the north pole star, and the constellations Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, and many others, can be seen from every meridian simultaneously; whereas in the south, from the equator, neither the so-called south pole star, nor the remarkable constellation of the Southern Cross, can be seen simultaneously from every meridian, showing that all the constellations of the south - pole star included - sweep over a great southern arc and across the meridian, from their rise in the evening to their setting in the morning.  But if the earth is a globe, Sigma Octantis, a south pole star, and the Southern Cross, a southern circumpolar constellation, they would all be visible at the same time from every longitude on the same latitude, as is the case with the northern pole star and the northern circumpolar constellations.  Such, however, is not the case.  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (286)

Some heliocentrists have even tried to suggest that the Pole Star’s gradual declination overhead as an observer travels southwards is proof of a globular Earth.  Far from it, the declination of the Pole Star or any other object is simply a result of the Law of Perspective.  The Law of Perspective dictates that the angle and height at which an object is seen diminishes the farther one recedes from the object, until at a certain point the line of sight and the seemingly uprising surface of the Earth converges to a vanishing point (i.e. the horizon line) beyond which the object is invisible.

If we select a flat street a mile long, containing a row of lamps, it will be noticed that from where we stand the lamps gradually decline to the ground, the last one being apparently quite on the ground.  Take the lamp at the end of the street and walk away from it a hundred yards, and it will appear to be much nearer the ground than when we were close to it; keep on walking away from it and it will appear to be gradually depressed until it is last seen on the ground and then disappears.  Now, according to the astronomers, the whole mile was only depressed about eight inches from one end to the other, so that this 8 in. could not account for the enormous depression of the light as we recede from it.  This proves that the depression of the Pole Star can and does take place in relation to a flat surface, simply because we increase our distance from it, the same as from the street lamp.  In other words, the further away we get from any object above us, as a star for example, the more it is depressed, and if we go far enough it will sink (or appear to sink) to the horizon and then disappear.  The writer has tried the street lamp many times with the same result.”  -Thomas Winship, “Zetetic Cosmogeny” (34)

It has often been urged that the earth must be a globe, because the stars in the southern ‘hemisphere’ move round a south polar star; in the same way that those of the north revolve round the northern pole star. This is another instance of the sacrifice of truth, and denial of the evidence of our senses for the purpose of supporting a theory which is in every sense false and unnatural. It is known to every observer that the north pole star is the centre of a number of constellations which move over the earth in a circular direction. Those nearest to it, as the ‘Great Bear,’ etc. are always visible in England during their whole twenty-four hours' revolution. Those further away southwards rise north-north-east, and set south-south-west; still further south they rise east by north, and set west by north. The farthest south visible from England, the rising is more to the east and south-east, and the setting to the west and south-west. But all the stars visible from London rise and set in a way which is not compatible with the doctrine of rotundity. For instance, if we stand with our backs to the north, on the high land known as ‘Arthur's Seat,’ near Edinburgh, and note the stars in the zenith of our position, and watch for several hours, the zenith stars will gradually recede to the north-west. If we do the same on Woodhouse Moor, near Leeds, or on any of the mountain tops in Yorkshire or Derbyshire, the same phenomenon is observed. The same thing may be seen from the top of Primrose Hill, near Regent's Park, London; from Hampstead Heath; or Shooter's Hill, near Woolwich. If we remain all night, we shall observe the same stars rising towards our position from the north-east, showing that the path of all the stars between ourselves and the northern centre move round the north pole-star as a common centre of rotation; just as they must do over a plane such as the earth is proved to be. It is undeniable that upon a globe zenith stars would rise, pass over head, and set in the plane of the observer's position. If now we carefully watch in the same way the zenith stars from the Rock of Gibraltar, the very same phenomenon is observed. The same is also the case from Cape of Good Hope, Sydney and Melbourne in Australia, in New Zealand, in Rio Janeiro, Monte Video, Valparaiso, and other places in the south. If then the zenith stars of all the places on the earth, where special observations have been made, rise from the morning horizon to the zenith of an observer, and descend to the evening horizon, not in a plane of the position of such observer, but in an arc of a circle concentric with the northern centre, the earth is thereby proved to be a plane, and rotundity altogether disproved - shown, indeed, to be impossible.”  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (284-6)



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Sunday, June 12, 2016

The Always Horizontal Horizon Proves Earth Flat





Whether at sea-level, the top of Mount Everest, or flying over a hundred thousand feet in the air, the always horizontal horizon line always rises up to meet the eye-level of the observer and remains perfectly flat.  You can test for yourself on a beach or hilltop, in a large field or desert, aboard a hot-air balloon or helicopter; you will see the panoramic horizon ascend with you and remain completely level all around.  If the Earth were actually a big ball, however, the horizon should sink as you ascend, not rise to your eye-level, and it would dip at each end of your periphery, not remain flat all around.  Standing in a rising balloon, you would have to look downwards to the horizon; the highest point of the ball-Earth would be directly beneath you and declining on each side. 

In an editorial from the London Journal, July 18, 1857, one journalist described quite the opposite in his hot-air balloon ascent, “The chief peculiarity of the view from a balloon at a considerable elevation was the altitude of the horizon, which remained practically on a level with the eye at an elevation of two miles, causing the surface of the earth to appear concave instead of convex, and to recede during the rapid ascent, whilst the horizon and the balloon seemed to be stationary.  J. Glaisher wrote in his, “Travels in the Air,” that “On looking over the top of the car, the horizon appeared to be on a level with the eye, and taking a grand view of the whole visible area beneath, I was struck with its great regularity; all was dwarfed to one plane; it seemed too flat.  M. Victor Emanuel, another hot-air balloonist, wrote that, “Instead of the earth declining from the view on either side, and the higher part being under the car, as is popularly supposed, it was the exact opposite; the lowest part, like a huge basin, being immediately under the car, and the horizon on all sides rising to the level of the eye.  Yet another American hot-air balloonist, Mr. Elliot wrote, “The aeronaut may well be the most skeptical man about the rotundity of the earth.  Philosophy forces the truth upon us; but the view of the earth from the elevation of a balloon is that of an immense terrestrial basin, the deeper part of which is directly under one’s feet.  And in Mayhew’s “Great World of London,” one aeronaut recorded that, “Another curious effect of the aerial ascent was, that the Earth, when we were at our greatest altitude, positively appeared concave, looking like a huge dark bowl, rather than the convex sphere such as we naturally expect to see it.  The horizon always appears to be on a level with our eye, and seems to rise as we rise, until at length the elevation of the circular boundary line of the sight becomes so marked that the Earth assumes the anomalous appearance as we have said of a concave rather than a convex body.”



Amateurs have sent balloons to heights of over 121,000 feet and you can watch video online of the horizon rising with the camera-level and remaining perfectly flat 360 degrees around.  NASA videos and other “official” sources, however, such as the recent Red Bull skydive at 128,000 feet have been caught adding fake curvature to the Earth via wide-angle lenses and post-production work.  Panoramic photos atop Mount Everest also often claim to be displaying Earth’s curvature, but this is simply the result of distortions and limitations inherent in wide-angle lenses.  I have exposed the full extent of NASA’s camera trickery and doctored CGI sphere Earth pictures/videos here, here and here.

The camera distorted horizons have always been a misleading factor with those who have not freed their minds from the ‘planet’ or ‘globe earth indoctrination.’  Three or four years ago, the U.S.I.S. booklet ‘Science Horizons,’ carried a note to the effect that the Americans hoped to produce a lens which would NOT distort level horizons.  So far I am not aware that such aid to truer photography has yet been made available.  Flat Earthists however can prove that due to the known laws of perspective, the horizon, optically rises and remains level with the observer’s, or the camera’s eye, no matter what height is achieved.  In fact the earth immediately beneath balloon, airplane, rocket or capsule, presents a dish-shaped or concave appearance.  The point of earth immediately below the vehicle is the lowest.  It is NOT the highest point of your ‘globe’ earth with the dip or curvature of the ‘ball’ sweeping away downwards to a horizon far away below the eye level.  -Samuel Shenton, “The Plane Truth”

If the Earth were actually a big ball 25,000 miles in circumference, the horizon would be noticeably curved (even at sea-level), and everything on or approaching the horizon would appear to tilt backwards slightly from your perspective.  Distant buildings along the horizon would all look like leaning towers of Piza falling away from the observer.  A  hot-air balloon taking off then drifting steadily away from you, on a ball-Earth would slowly and constantly appear to lean back more and more the farther away it flew, the bottom of the basket coming gradually into view as the top of the balloon disappears from sight.  In reality, however, buildings, balloons, trees, people, anything and everything at right angles to the ground/horizon remains so regardless the distance of the observer.



The marine horizon, from whatever position it is viewed, always appears to be, and is, in fact, a perfectly level line, and since this appearance is the same in all parts of the world, its surface must be level; and therefore the Earth is a Plane.  This may be proved to be the case, by erecting at a suitable elevation on the sea shore, a duly-levelled board, or a string - at right angles to a plumb-line - tightly stretched between two vertical poles.  On looking towards the sea, the horizontal line for a distance of 20 miles may be easily observed, and throughout its entire length it will be found to coincide with the straight-edge, or string: but if the earth were a globe, the horizontal line would form an arc of twenty miles in length, curveting both ways from the center, at the rate of eight inches, multiplied by the square of the distance.  Hence the horizontal line at either end of the distance ought to be depressed some 66 feet below the horizon in the center.  But as no such appearance is ever presented, it necessarily follows that the earth cannot be a globe, or other than a plane.”  -B. Chas. Brough, “The Zetetic” Volume 1 Number 1, July 1872

Anyone can prove the sea-horizon perfectly straight and the entire Earth perfectly flat using nothing more than a level, tripods and a wooden plank.  At any altitude above sea-level, simply fix a 6-12 foot long, smooth, leveled board edgewise upon tripods and observe the skyline from eye-level behind it.   The distant horizon will always align perfectly parallel with the upper edge of the board.  Furthermore, if you move in a half-circle from one end of the board to the other whilst observing the skyline over the upper edge, you will be able to trace a clear, flat 10-20 miles depending on your altitude.  This would be impossible if the Earth were a globe and the surface of water convex!  If the Earth were actually a globe 25,000 miles in circumference, the horizon would align over the center of the board but then gradually, noticeably decline towards the extremities.  Just ten miles on each side would necessitate an easily visible curvature of 66.6 feet from each end to the center.

It is known that the horizon at sea, whatever distance it may extend to the right and left of the observer on land, always appears as a straight line.  The following experiment has been tried in various parts of the country.  At Brighton, on a rising ground near the race course, two poles were fixed in the earth six yards apart, and directly opposite the sea.  Between these poles a line was tightly stretched parallel to the horizon.  From the center of the line the view embraced not less than 20 miles on each side making a distance of 40 miles.  A vessel was observed sailing directly westwards; the line cut the rigging a little above the bulwarks, which it did for several hours or until the vessel had sailed the whole distance of 40 miles.  The ship coming into view from the east would have to ascend an inclined plane for 20 miles until it arrived at the center of the arc, whence it would have to descend for the same distance.  The square of 20 miles multiplied by 8 inches gives 266 feet as the amount the vessel would be below the line at the beginning and at the end of the 40 miles.  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (20)

From the highland near Portsmouth Harbor in Hampshire, England looking across Spithead to the Isle of Wight, the entire base of the island, where water and land come together composes a perfectly straight line 22 statute miles long.  According to the ball-Earth theory, the Isle of Wight should decline 80 feet from the center on each side to account for the necessary curvature.  The cross-hairs of a good theodolite directed there, however, have repeatedly shown the land and water line to be perfectly level.

On a clear day from the highland near Douglas Harbor on the Isle of Man, the whole length of the coast of North Wales is often plainly visible to the naked eye.  From the Point of Ayr at the mouth of the River Dee to Holyhead comprises a 50 mile stretch which has also been repeatedly found to be perfectly horizontal.  If the Earth actually had curvature of 8 inches per mile squared, as NASA and modern astronomy claim, the 50 mile length of Welsh coast seen along the horizon in Liverpool Bay would have to decline from the center-point an easily detectable 416 feet on each side!

But as such declination, or downward curvation, cannot be detected, the conclusion is logically inevitable that it has no existence. Let the reader seriously ask whether any and what reason exists in Nature to prevent the fall of more than 400 feet being visible to the eye, or incapable of detection by any optical or mathematical means whatever. This question is especially important when it is considered that at the same distance, and on the upper outline of the same land, changes of level of only a few yards extent are quickly and unmistakably perceptible.  If a man is guided by evidence and reason, and influenced by a love of truth and consistency, he cannot longer maintain that the earth is a globe. He must feel that to do so is to war with the evidence of his senses, to deny that any importance attaches to fact and experiment, to ignore entirely the value of logical process, and to cease to rely upon practical induction.”  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (28)



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Sunday, May 29, 2016

The Natural Physics of Water Prove Earth Flat




It is part of the natural physics of water and other fluids to always find their level and remain flat.  If disturbed in any way, motion ensues until the flat level is resumed.  If dammed up then released, the nature of all liquids is to quickly flood outwards taking the easiest course towards finding its new level. 

The upper surface of a fluid at rest is a horizontal plane.  Because if a part of the surface were higher than the rest, those parts of the fluid which were under it would exert a greater pressure upon the surrounding parts than they receive from them, so that motion would take place amongst the particles and continue until there were none at a higher level than the rest, that is, until the upper surface of the whole mass of fluid became a horizontal plane.”  -W.T. Lynn, “First Principles of Natural Philosophy”

If the Earth is an extended flat plane, then this fundamental physical property of fluids finding and remaining level is consistent with experience and common sense.  If, however, the Earth is a giant sphere tilted on its vertical axis spinning through never-ending space then it follows that truly flat, consistently level surfaces do not exist here!  Moreover, if the Earth is spherical then it follows that the surface of all Earth’s water, including the massive oceans, must maintain a certain degree of convexity.  But this is contrary to the fundamental physical nature of water to always be and remain level!

The surface of all water, when not agitated by natural causes, such as winds, tides, earthquakes etc. is perfectly level.  The sense of sight proves this to every unprejudiced and reasonable mind.  Can any so-called scientist, who teaches that the earth is a whirling globe, take a heap of liquid water, whirl it round, and so make rotundity?  He cannot.  Therefore it is utterly impossible to prove that an ocean is a whirling rotund section of a globular earth, rushing through ‘space’ at the lying-given-rate of false philosophers.  -William Thomas Wiseman, “The Earth An Irregular Plane”

If we were living on a whirling ball-Earth, every pond, lake, marsh, canal and other large body of standing water, each part would have to comprise a slight arc or semi-circle curveting downwards from the central summit.  For example, if the ball-Earth were 25,000 miles in circumference as NASA and modern astronomers say, then spherical trigonometry dictates the surface of all standing water must curve downwards an easily measureable 8 inches per mile multiplied by the square of the distance.  This means along a 6 mile channel of standing water the Earth would dip 6 feet on either end from the central peak.  To the benefit of true science, and to the detriment of modern astronomy’s pseudo-science, such an experiment can and has been tested.

In Cambridge, England there is a 20 mile canal called the Old Bedford which passes in a straight line through the Fenlands known as the Bedford Level.  The water has no interruption from locks or water-gates of any kind and remains stationary making it perfectly suitable for determining whether any amount of convexity/curvature actually exists.  In the latter part of the 19th century, Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, a famous Flat-Earther and author of the fine book, “Earth Not a Globe!  An Experimental Inquiry into the True Figure of the Earth: Proving it a Plane, Without Axial or Orbital Motion; and the Only Material World in the Universe!” travelled to the Bedford level and performed a series of experiments to determine whether the surface of standing water is flat or convex.

A boat, with a flag-staff, the top of the flag 5 feet above the surface of the water, was directed to sail from a place called ‘Welche's Dam’ (a well-known ferry passage), to another called ‘Welney Bridge.’ These two points are six statute miles apart. The author, with a good telescope, went into the water; and with the eye about 8 inches above the surface, observed the receding boat during the whole period required to sail to Welney Bridge. The flag and the boat were distinctly visible throughout the whole distance! There could be no mistake as to the distance passed over, as the man in charge of the boat had instructions to lift one of his oars to the top of the arch the moment he reached the bridge. The experiment commenced about three o'clock in the afternoon of a summer's day, and the sun was shining brightly and nearly behind or against the boat during the whole of its passage. Every necessary condition had been fulfilled, and the result was to the last degree definite and satisfactory. The conclusion was unavoidable that the surface of the water for a length of six miles did not to any appreciable extent decline or curvate downwards from the line of sight. But if the earth is a globe, the surface of the six miles length of water would have been 6 feet higher in the centre than at the two extremities.  From this experiment it follows that the surface of standing water is not convex, and therefore that the Earth is not a globe!  On the contrary, this simple experiment is all-sufficient to prove that the surface of the water is parallel to the line-of-sight, and is therefore horizontal, and that the Earth cannot be other than a plane!  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!  An Experimental Inquiry into the True Figure of the Earth: Proving it a Plane, Without Axial or Orbital Motion; and the Only Material World in The Universe!” (12-13)

In a second experiment, Dr. Rowbotham placed seven flags along the edge of the water each one mile distant from the next with their tops positioned 5 feet above the surface.  Near the last one he also positioned a longer, 8 foot staff bearing a 3 foot flag so that its bottom aligned precisely with the tops of the other flags.  He then mounted a telescope at a height of 5 feet behind the first flag and took his observations.  If the Earth was a globe of 25,000 miles, each successive flag would have to decline a definite and determined amount below the last.  The first and second flags simply established the line of sight, the third flag should then fall 8 inches below the second, the fourth flag 32 inches below, the fifth 6 feet, the sixth 10 feet 8 inches, and the seventh flag should be a clear 16 feet 8 inches below the line of sight!  Even if the Earth was a globe of a hundred thousand miles, an amount of easily measurable curvature should and would still be evident in this experiment.  But the reality is not a single inch of curvature was detected and the flags all lined up perfectly as consistent with a flat plane.

The rotundity of the earth would necessitate the above conditions; but as they cannot be found to exist, the doctrine must be pronounced as only a simple theory, having no foundation in fact--a pure invention of misdirected genius; splendid in its comprehensiveness and bearing upon natural phenomena; but, nevertheless, mathematical and logical necessities compel its denunciation as an absolute falsehood.  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (14)

Dr. Rowbotham conducted several other experiments using telescopes, spirit levels, and “theodolites,” special precision instruments used for measuring angles in horizontal or vertical planes.  By positioning them at equal heights aimed at each other successively he proved over and over the Earth to be perfectly flat for miles without a single inch of curvature.  His findings caused quite a stir in the scientific community and thanks to 30 years of his efforts, the shape of the Earth became a hot topic of debate around the turn of the nineteenth century.

Is water level, or is it not?’ was a question once asked of an astronomer. ‘Practically, yes; theoretically, no,’ was the reply.  Now, when theory does not harmonize with practice, the best thing to do is to drop the theory. (It is getting too late, now to say ‘So much the worse for the facts!’) To drop the theory which supposes a curved surface to standing water is to acknowledge the facts.  Whenever experiments have been tried on the surface of standing water, the surface has always been found to be level. If the Earth were a globe, the surface of all standing water would be convex. This is an experimental proof that Earth is not a globe.”  -William Carpenter, “100 Proofs the Earth is Not a Globe”

Since any given body of water must have a level surface, no one part higher than another, and seeing that all our oceans (a few inland seas excepted) are connected together, it follows that they are all VIRTUALLY OF THE SAME LEVEL.  -The English Mechanic, 26th, June 1896

Astronomers say the magical magnetism of gravity is what keeps all the oceans of the world stuck to the ball-Earth.  They say that because the Earth is so massive, by virtue of this mass it creates a magic force able to hold people, oceans and atmosphere tightly clung to the underside of the spinning ball.  Unfortunately, however, they cannot provide any practical example of this on a scale smaller than the planetary.  For example, a spinning wet tennis ball has the exact opposite effect of the supposed ball-Earth! Any water poured over it simply falls off the sides, and giving it a spin results in water flying off 360 degrees like a dog shaking after a bath.  Astronomers concede the wet tennis ball example displays the opposite effect of their supposed ball-Earth, but claim that at some unknown mass, the magic adhesive properties of gravity suddenly kick in allowing the spinning wet tennis ball-Earth to keep every drop of “gravitized” water stuck to the surface.  Again, their theory flies in the face of all practical evidence, but they have been running with it for 500 years, so why stop now?

If the Earth were a globe, rolling and dashing through ‘space’ at the rate of ‘a hundred miles in five seconds of time,’ the waters of seas and oceans could not, by any known law, be kept on its surface - the assertion that they could be retained under these circumstances being an outrage upon human understanding and credulity! But as the Earth - that is, the habitable world of dry land - is found to be ‘standing out of the water and in the water’ of the ‘mighty deep,’ whose circumferential boundary is ice, we may throw the statement back into the teeth of those who make it and flaunt before their faces the flag of reason and common sense, inscribed with a proof that the Earth is not a globe.  -William Carpenter, “100 Proofs the Earth is Not a Globe” (86)

In one portion of its long route, the great river Nile flows for a thousand miles with a fall of only one foot!  This is a feat which, of course, would be a sheer impossibility if the Earth had spherical curvature.  Many other rivers including the Congo in West Africa, the Amazon in South America, and the Mississippi in North America all flow for thousands of miles in directions totally incompatible with the supposed globularity of the Earth as well.

Rivers run DOWN to the sea because of the inclination of their beds.  Rising at an altitude above sea-level, in some cases thousands of feet above the sea, they follow the easiest route to their level - the sea.  The ‘Parana’ and ‘Paraguay’ in South America are navigable for over 2,000 miles, and their waters run the same way until they find their level of stability, where the sea tides begin.  But if the world be a globe, the ‘Amazon’ in South America that flows always in an easterly direction, would sometimes be running uphill and sometimes down, according to the movement of the globe.  Then the ‘Congo’ in West Africa, that always pursues a westerly course to the sea, would in the same manner be running alternately up and down.  When that point of the globe exactly between them was up, they would both be running up, although in opposite directions; and when the globe took half a turn, they would both be running down!  We know from practical experiment that water will find its level, and cannot by any possibility remain other than level, or flat, or horizontal - whatever term may be used to express the idea.  It is therefore quite out of the range of possibility that rivers could do as they would have to do on a globe.”  -Thomas Winship, “Zetetic Cosmogeny” (110)

Whoever heard of a river in any part of its course flowing uphill? Yet this it would require to do were the Earth a Globe. Rivers, like the Mississippi, which flow from the North southwards towards the Equator, would need, according to Modem Astronomic theory, to run upwards, as the Earth at the Equator is said to bulge out considerably more, or, in other words, is higher than at any other part. Thus the Mississippi, in its immense course of over 3,000 miles, would have to ascend 11 miles before it reached the Gulf of Mexico!  -David Wardlaw Scott, “Terra Firma” (126)




There are rivers which flow east, west, north, and south - that is, rivers are flowing in all directions over the Earth's surface, and at the same time. Now, if the Earth were a globe, some of these rivers would be flowing up-hill and others down, taking it for a fact that there really is an ‘up’ and a ‘down’ in nature, whatever form she assumes. But, since rivers do not flow up-hill, and the globular theory requires that they should, it is a proof that the Earth is not a globe.”  -William Carpenter, “100 Proofs the Earth is Not a Globe” (85)



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